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An example of damage, getting hurt.

Damage represents injury from attacks or natural causes.

Health[edit | edit source]

Main article: Health

Players and mobs have a supply of health points, which are reduced when they are injured. Each health point is "half a heart", shown as Template:Hp.

Players have Template:Hp health points, but may vary by status effects. Mobs have varying numbers of health points, but these are not generally visible to players. However, when riding mobs, a player can see their mount's health, and a wolf's health is visible in its tail angle.

Damage[edit | edit source]

Damage from attacks or natural causes subtracts from a player or mob's current health. When their health reaches zero, they die. Players can also recover health naturally by having their hunger at least 9px x 18 and the gamerule naturalRegeneration is set to true, or through status effects. Most mobs do not recover health except through status effects, but horses and dogs can be healed by feeding them.

Armor absorbs some of the damage that would have been done to its wearer, but takes damage itself in the process.

Damage to tools and armor can be viewed in the item's tooltip by pressing the debug key combination Script error: No such module "keys". Template:In. If the player is playing on a Mac, they have to press Script error: No such module "keys"..

Stored and displayed[edit | edit source]

Health and damage are stored as floating-point numbers in units of half-hearts. When displaying the HUD, fractional values are rounded up to the next integer.

Dealing damage[edit | edit source]

Players can deal damage by hitting most entities with targets at close (melee) range. An "unarmed" attack does Template:Hp[Java Edition only] damage or Template:Hp[Bedrock Edition only][1], but weapons and certain tools do more:

  • Swords are crafted for this purpose. While swords do not extend attack range, they deal significantly more damage than any other item or tool except axes.[Java Edition only]
  • Axes, pickaxes and shovels also deal more damage than bare fists. Also, axes deal the most damage, but have the slowest attack speed. [Java Edition only]
  • Tridents can be used melee or ranged. They are a balanced weapon, but they cannot be crafted.
  • Any other item is equivalent to fists and does the same damage. This includes hoes, and hitting something directly with a bow or held arrow.
  • While falling, melee attacks deal a critical hit (150% of the weapon's damage including potion effects, but before enchantments are applied, rounded down to the nearest hit point).

There are a few ranged weapons in the game:

  • Arrows are shot by holding and releasing Template:Control when wielding a bow, and deal a certain amount of damage depending on the "charge" of the bow. For crossbows, it deals random factor between 6 - 11.
  • Snowballs inflict damage only on blazes, while eggs don't deal any damage to mobs. Both still knock mobs back as if they had been damaged.
  • Splash potions can be thrown, inflicting various effects depending on the potion.
  • Lingering potions can be thrown, creating a cloud that inflicts various effects depending on the potion.
  • Ender pearls don't deal damage to mobs or players other than the player throwing it.
  • Fishing rods cannot be used to damage mobs directly. However, fishing rods can knock entities back or reel them in.

The values below show the damage dealt per hit using various weapons. Critical hits do extra damage. (The values listed here apply only to the Java Edition.)

Script error: No such module "Weapon info". Template:Notelist

Attack cooldown[edit | edit source]


Attack indicator (crosshair), empty and charged
Attack indicator (hotbar), empty and charged

Attacking too quickly reduces the strength of attacks. The base damage done (as a fraction of the full possible damage) depends on the time between attacks, which is also reflected in the height of the held weapon on screen and the attack indicator bar (configurable in the options menu):

Script error: No such module "Weapon info".

The attackSpeed attribute controls the length of the cooldown time, with the time taken being T = 1 / attackSpeed * 20 ticks. The damage multiplier is then 0.2 + ((t + 0.5) / T) ^ 2 * 0.8, restricted to the range 0.2 – 1, where t is the number of ticks since the last attack or item switch.

Damage done by enchantments (Sharpness, Smite, and Bane of Arthropods) is also reduced, but not as severely (the multiplier is not squared):

Script error: No such module "Weapon info".

Critical hits[edit | edit source]

A critical hit performed on a sheep.

Critical hits are attacks that deal extra damage compared to regular attacks. Critical melee strikes, regardless of the weapon used, cause small star particles to fly out of the target who was critically hit. Arrows shot from fully charged bows have a 25% chance of becoming "critical arrows" and dealing extra damage, but all arrows from fully charged bows leave a trail of the same small star particles as they fly through the air. Critical hits affect all damageable entities including players, mobs, paintings, boats and minecarts.

In melee, a critical hit occurs when a player attacks a mob while falling, including while coming down from a jump, but not while jumping up. The attack deals 150% of the attack's base damage (before enchantments or armor are applied).

The requirements for a melee critical hit are:

  • A player must be falling.
  • A player must not be on the ground.
  • A player must not be on a ladder/vine.
  • A player must not be in water.
  • A player must not be affected by blindness.
  • A player must not be riding an entity.
  • A player must not be faster than walking (like flying or sprinting.[Java Edition only])
  • A base attack must not be reduced to 84.8% damage or lower due to cooldown.[Java Edition only]

Immunity[edit | edit source]

After sustaining damage from any source, a mob/player turns red in color for half a second. During this period, most other incoming damage is not counted against the player/mob's total health.

For instance, if the player attacks a mob with a sword by repeatedly hitting the Template:Control button, the sword's rate of fire exceeds the mob's allowable rate of incoming damage, preventing some attacks from damaging the mob even if they land. It is recommended for the player to wait for a mob to become available to hit again before swinging their sword, making their hits more precise. The tool used won't lose durability after unsuccessful attacks.

If an entity is in the immunity period and then receives higher damage, the game takes the higher damage subtracting the lower damage, and deals that. For example, if a mob is attacked with a weapon dealing Template:Hp damage and then attacked with a weapon dealing Template:Hp damage during the immunity period, the mob receives Template:Hp damage total. This also occurs for snowballs on mobs which it does not decrease the health of. Damage taken during the damage immunity state does not set one into damage immunity state, but is started again after the time has finished, when the target next takes damage.

Inflicted by mobs[edit | edit source]


Knockback[edit | edit source]

When receiving damage from players, mobs, or most projectiles, players and mobs are also knocked back. The resulting disorientation and loss of control should not be underestimated, as it is possible to be knocked back over a cliff or into lava, both of which are potentially fatal.

A sprinting attack causes extra knockback. A thrown egg or snowball also causes knockback, despite not damaging most mobs. Entities riding another entity never receive any knockback when attacked. Iron golems, shulkers and the ender dragon also do not get knockback. Ravagers and hoglinsTemplate:Upcoming have 50% chance to knockback resistance and squid are highly knockback resistance on land.

Natural damage[edit | edit source]

Besides mob attacks, players can take damage from several other sources.

Lightning damage[edit | edit source]

Lightning striking on or near the player inflicts Template:Hp damage, which can be reduced with armor. Lightning strikes on the player are rare, and occur only during thunderstorms. Players and mobs that get hit by lightning are set on fire, which is quickly extinguished by the rain during a thunderstorm.

Fall damage[edit | edit source]

Most mobs receive damage when falling from excessive heights. Armor itself does not reduce fall damage, however the enchantments Feather Falling and Protection, and the status effect Slow Falling do. The table below shows fall damage immunity for mobs.

Mob Immune
Hostile and Neutral mobs (monster)
Chicken Jockey
Ender Dragon
Snow Golem
Iron Golem
Magma Cube
Cave Spider
Elder Guardian
Spider Jockey
Wither Skeleton
Zombie Pigman
Zombie Villager
Passive and Neutral (animals & npc)
Polar Bear
Tropical Fish
Wandering Trader
Skeleton Horse
Skeleton Horseman
Zombie Horse
  1. Template:Bug
  2. Unless /gamerule falldamage is set to false.[Bedrock Edition and Java Edition only]
  3. Treat all falls as half of the actual distance

Fall damage is calculated based on distance fallen rather than on velocity when hitting the ground. The distance is accumulated based on change in position each tick and rising does not reduce the accumulator, thus an entity bouncing in mid-air on the end of a lead accumulates fatal amounts of fall distance despite never being more than a few blocks above the ground.

Fall damage is Template:Hp for each block of fall distance after the third. Thus, falling 4 blocks causes Template:Hp damage, Template:Hp damage for 5 blocks, and so forth. Assuming full health (but no Feather Falling or relevant status effects), a 23 block fall should be fatal (23 - 3 = Template:Hp of damage), but due to the way fall distance is calculated, a 23.5 block fall is required instead.[note 1]

Falling from smaller damaging heights (4-7 blocks) plays a thud sound; larger heights (8+) give a click/cracking sound.

In some cases, it is possible to avoid falling or otherwise survive a fall.

  • [[Sneaking|Template:Control]] prevents the player from falling off a drop of one block or greater.
  • Entering or being in water (when not in a boat) resets fall distance. This typically includes falling into water of any depth.
  • Being in the area of effect of cobwebs resets fall distance.
  • Being in lava reduces fall distance by half each tick.
  • Flying using elytra such that the vertical movement is upwards, level, or less than 0.5 blocks per tick downwards resets fall distance to 1 block.
  • Moving into a ladder or vine's area of effect resets the fall damage. This also applies to trapdoors acting as a ladder.
    • Falling onto the top of a ladder does not reset fall distance and counts as hitting the ground.
    • Horses are unaffected by ladders and vines, and so their fall distance is not reset.
    • Spiders climbing a block count the block as a "ladder" for this purpose.
  • An entity riding another entity does not accumulate fall distance. However, when the ridden entity takes fall damage it damages all riders for the same fall distance.
  • A minecart's fall distance is reset when landing on rails.
  • Boats do not accumulate fall distance while in water deeper than 1 block.
  • Teleporting due to a thrown ender pearl resets fall distance, however the teleportation itself causes Template:Hp fall damage to players.
  • Wearing armor that is enchanted with Feather Falling or Protection reduces fall damage based on the level of the enchantment.
  • Having the Jump Boost status effect reduces the effective fall distance by 1 block per level, e.g. falling 5 blocks with Jump Boost II counts as having fallen only 3.
  • Slime blocks negate all fall damage, but bounces the entity into the air. This does not apply to players sneaking.
  • Hay bales and honey blocks decrease fall damage to 20% of normal.
  • Beds decrease fall damage to 50% of normal, and causes the entity to bounce into the air.
  • Sweet berry bushes negate all fall damage.
  • Slow falling status effect completely negate all fall damage, but cause entity to fall slowly.


Drowning[edit | edit source]

The oxygen bar.

When a player runs out of air underwater, they begin to drown, taking approximately Template:Hp per second.[note 2]

Mobs can drown as well, although mobs that can drown in water attempt to swim upward (except for zombie variants). A squid or any kind of fish dies in air instead of in water, while iron golems, guardians, turtles and undead mobs cannot drown in any situation. Withers can drown, but break blocks around them (including water) upon taking damage. Normally, mobs can remain underwater for 15 seconds before their air supply fully depletes. They can remain underwater for 16 seconds before actually beginning to take damage. The Water Breathing status effect stops the air meter from depleting, and Respiration equipment adds, on average, an additional 16 seconds per level. Conduit Power status effect also help breath underwater and does not stack with water breathing. Neither effect affects squid and fish. A zombie does not take damage, but instead begins the process of converting to a drowned mob when continuously in water for 30 seconds, and these mobs do not drown.

When the player is no longer submerged in water, or is in a bubble column, their oxygen regenerates at a rate of 1 bubble every 0.2 seconds (4 game ticks).

Using an empty bucket on a water block creates a temporary air block, which can be used for the same effect.

In Pocket Edition Alpha 0.8.0, the player actually has 11 air bubbles but once submerged, the 11th bubble instantly disappears.


Anvil[edit | edit source]

A falling anvil deals Template:Hp per block fallen after the first (e.g., an anvil that falls 4 blocks deals Template:Hp damage). The damage is capped at Template:Hp, no matter how far the anvil falls. Wearing a helmet reduces the damage by 25%, but reduces many points of durability on the helmet.

Thorns enchantment[edit | edit source]

When a player or mob deals melee or projectile damage to a player or mob that is wearing Thorns-enchanted armor, part of the damage is reflected back at the attacker. The amount varies with the enchantment level. (Level * 15% chance of inflicting Template:HpTemplate:Hp damage, or Level - 10 damage if level is over 10)

Suffocation[edit | edit source]

Suffocation occurs when a player or a mob is unable to breathe due to its head being stuck inside a solid block, causing the player or mob to receive Template:Hp damage every half-second. When inside a block, the player can easily step out of it as the blocks do not prevent their movement.

For the purposes of suffocation, blocks that are transparent or do not fill an entire block do not cause damage. This includes Leaves, Glass, Honey Block, any type or position of Slab, any Stairs or Fence, Hopper, Chest, Bed, Bell, Composter, Grindstone, Stonecutter, Iron Bars, End Portal Frame, Grass Path, Farmland, Soul Sand, and closed or open Trapdoor, and extended Piston heads. One notable exception is the partially transparent Slime Block, which does cause damage.

The player's screen displays a darkened form of the block in which the player is suffocating. When the player is in third person, the view automatically switches to first person.[Java Edition only]

The usual ways a mob can suffocate are:

  • Sand, gravel or concrete powder falling into the space the entity occupies.
  • Riding a pig, boat, or minecart into a one-block-high space.
  • Riding a horse into a two-block-high space.
  • Standing where a tree just grew from a sapling, or where a huge mushroom just grew from a mushroom.
  • Standing where an end gateway appeared after killing the dragon.
  • Having a solid block pushed into the mob's head with a piston.
  • Sleeping in a bed surrounded by blocks and/or having a solid block above it.[Bedrock Edition only]
  • Being teleported or filled into a block via commands.
  • When playing on a distant server, sometimes broken blocks can reappear due to lag, and if the player moves where the block respawned, it can provoke suffocation (for example, chopping down a tree by moving right below the trunk).
  • When water and lava meet, and create a cobblestone, stone, or obsidian block on the entity's head.
  • Standing on a grass path, under which is sand.
  • Standing over 5 blocks outside of the world border . (can be changed with Template:Cmd)
  • Summoning an entity inside a block through spawn eggs, commands, or with a golem/wither structure laying down.

Template:IN, entities take damage if too many are packed into the same space. Specifically, the maxEntityCramming gamerule defines the maximum number, above which a player or mob takes Template:Hp suffocation damage every half-second, as long as that player or mob is pushing greater than that number of other entities. The default max number of entities in one block space is 24. Pushable entities include players, mobs, boats and minecarts.

Template:IN, the player can "drown" in lava and while suffocating in a block (the oxygen bar appears); is affected by water breathing potion, however lava or suffocation usually kills the player before oxygen runs out.

Starvation[edit | edit source]

When the hunger bar becomes empty (Template:Hungerbar), the player takes Template:Hp damage every four seconds. The player stops taking starvation damage when the player eats food or the health bar drops to Template:Hp on Easy difficulty or Template:Hp on Normal difficulty. In Hard difficulty and on Hardcore mode, the player continues taking damage, which stops upon eating something or death by starvation.

Cactus[edit | edit source]

Players and mobs take Template:Hp damage every half-second when they are touching or within the same tile-space as a cactus.

Berry bush[edit | edit source]

Sweet berry bushes deal Template:Hp damage for every 10 game ticks (0.5 seconds) that a player or mob (besides foxes) is moving inside a sweet berry bush.

Fire[edit | edit source]

When mobs and players without fire immunity stand on fire, they take Template:Hp damage every second and get burned. They continue burning after leaving the fire block. Fire damage can be prevented by the Fire Resistance effect.

Lava[edit | edit source]

Lava is a dangerous natural occurrence. Players and mobs get burned and take damage from contact with lava at a rate of Template:Hp every half-second, and they continue burning after they leave it. Fire Resistance nullifies both the direct damage from lava and the burning damage.

Burning[edit | edit source]

Players and many mobs burn when exposed to fire or lava or attacked by certain kinds of burning projectiles, Fire Aspect weapons, or burning zombies. Burning obstructs the player's view slightly and, unless the player or mob has Fire Resistance, inflicts damage at a rate of Template:Hp per second. This is the same rate that the player gains health in Peaceful difficulty, so burning alone cannot kill the player in this mode. Burning lasts some amount of time depending on its cause, but it is extinguished by rain, water, or cauldrons.

Nether mobs do not burn and cannot be damaged by fire. Burning is not considered a status effect and therefore cannot be cured by milk.

Magma Block[edit | edit source]

Mobs without fire immunity and players take Template:Hp damage every half-second if they are walking on magma blocks. This can be avoided by having the Fire Resistance effect, sneaking, or wearing Frost Walker-enchanted boots.

Campfire[edit | edit source]

Players or mobs standing on top of a campfire take Template:Hp damage every 10 game ticks (0.5 seconds).

Status effects[edit | edit source]

Main article: Status effect

Poison[edit | edit source]

Main article: Poison

Cave spiders and bees poison players when they attack (except on easy difficulty). Poisoning also occurs upon eating a spider eye, poisonous potato, pufferfish, or suspicious stew made out of lily of the valley. Drinking or being hit by a potion or arrow of poison also results in poisoning. While poisoned, the hearts in the health meter turn from Template:Hp (Template:Hp on Hardcore) to an olive green (Template:Hp)(Template:Hp on Hardcore) and the player takes Template:Hp every 25 ticks (1.25 seconds) on level I. See Poison for a table for higher levels. The Poison itself cannot kill the player, but it can reduce them to half a heart (Template:Hp), thus leaving them very vulnerable to damage from other sources.

Wither[edit | edit source]

Main article: Wither (status effect)

Withers and wither skeletons inflict the Wither effect with their attacks (the wither skulls do not inflict the effect on easy difficulty). This darkens the health bar to Template:Hp on Survival and Template:Hp on Hardcore, while inflicting damage over time. The effect deals Template:Hp every 2 seconds (40 ticks) for the wither skeleton's attack (level I), and every second for the Wither's skulls (level II). Wither rose also inflict wither to any mobs colliding it. Players also get the Wither effect after eating suspicious stew made out of wither rose or when hit by potion or arrow of decay.[Bedrock Edition only] Unlike Poison, withering can kill on any difficulty level, and the darkened health bar makes it harder to keep track of the damage.

The Void[edit | edit source]

Main article: The Void

If one were to break through the bedrock barrier found at the bottom of worlds, the void can be seen. Players in the void below the Y-axis of -64 take damage at a rate of about Template:Hp per half-second. The player usually dies from falling in the void, even in creative mode,[Java Edition only] but the player may be saved by throwing an ender pearl before falling below the Y-axis of -64. In Bedrock Edition, the player takes damage at any negative Y-axis.

Falling into the void in the End is more likely, and is the only way to access the void in Survival mode.

By using Template:Cmd to give the player Regeneration 5+ or Instant Health, they can fall infinitely into the void without dying until the game crashes.[Java Edition only]

Explosions[edit | edit source]

Main article: Explosion

Firework rocket explosion[edit | edit source]

Firework rocket explosions can deal damage to entities.

If a rocket has been crafted with a firework star, its explosion deals damage within a radius of about 412 blocks. At the edge of the radius, it deals only Template:Hp damage, but this increases as the player gets closer until the explosion maxes out at its strongest: Template:HpTemplate:Hp damage at distances of 2 blocks or less, with extra Template:HpTemplate:Hp per additional firework star applied in firework rocket.

If a rocket crafted with a firework star is Template:Controld to provide a speed boost while gliding with elytra, it explodes as it is used, dealing Template:Hp damage to the player.

Achievements[edit | edit source]

Template:Load achievements

Advancements[edit | edit source]

Template:Load advancements

Video[edit | edit source]


Template:Video note


History[edit | edit source]

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Trivia[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]


de:Schaden es:Daño fr:Coup critique ko:피해 nl:Schade pl:Krytyczny cios pt:Dano ru:Урон ja:ダメージ zh:伤害
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